It’s not only the low-lying Small Island Developing Nations in the Pacific that are experiencing the impacts of climate change but also in the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary system in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States.
An article on the NY Times says that the Chesapeake Bay is at the ‘front-row view of the sea’s rapid advance.’
The area around the bay has seen the rapid intrusion of saltwater, says Keryn Gedan, a wetland ecologist at George Washington University, the article says.
The rate of sea-level rise is 5 millimetres per year well above the global average of 3.1 millimetres up and down the mid-Atlantic coast in the US.
The Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, located on Maryland’s eastern shore has lost 3,000 acres of forest and agricultural land between 1938 and 2006, and more than 5000 acres of marsh became open water where Dr Gedan conducted her research. Another Biologist, Matt Whitbeck who also works in the refuge found out in 2012 that the marsh was not disappearing rather it was ‘migrating’ and some of the 3,000 acres of forest that the refuge lost were transformed into the saltwater marsh, the article adds ( Manoff, M. V., 2019 ).
What contributes to the rapid sea-level rise.
According to the NY Times article, the Gulf stream is slowing down as Greenland’s melting water inhibits its flow. This piles-up the water in the East Coast causing a local elevation of sea-levels.
This rapid sea-level rise in the of the East Coast is a “window into the future for the rest of the world, Dr. Gedan says ( Manoff, M. V., 2019 ).
Effects of Sea-level rise according to Manoff’s article:
- In Dorchester County, it is killing loblolly pines the most salt-resistant tree, compared to oak and other sensitive hardwood.
- When these forests are dead, saltwater marsh plants move in, and the “cane-like Phragmites, an invasive plant takes over.”
- The rapid rise of sea-levels and increase of drought events has both increased seawater intrusion to new places, gradually killing trees, and creating ghost forests.
- The 5-millimetre rise in sea levels translates into saltwater inland intrusion at 15 feet per year says Gedan.
When the saltwater seeps into the soil before sea-level rise becomes obvious and killing sensitive plants far from the shore this phenomenon is known to the residents as the “invisible flood.”
“You can’t really see it,” says Elizabeth van Dolah, an anthropologist at the University of Maryland. She adds that communities see these happening at a ‘much quicker pace than in the past.’
The people living in the area have recognized this and they will eventually have to leave but for the time being, intended to stay.
To know what other places in the East Coast or the mid-Atlantic region are being affected by sea-level rise and salt intrusion, you can read the entire article by clicking on the button below:
Is it sea-level rise or the land is sinking?
According to a study mentioned in the Harvard Gazette, sea-level rise is only a part of the picture, and the reason why sea levels are rising is that land is sinking ( Reuell, P., 2019).
This is the key finding of a study recently published in Nature and co-authored by Professor of Earth and Planetary Sciences Peter Huybers, and another Professor of Science, and an assistant scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
The reason for this sinking of land is a large-scale pattern of the response to the last ice age between 20 and 95 thousand years when the Laurentide Ice Sheet that covered most of northern North America, ‘levered the land upwards’, according to the researchers of the study. Huybers says, “Now, thousands of years after the ice is gone, the mid-Atlantic crust is still subsiding”.
What this means is a greater rates sea-level rise along the mid-Atlantic because of the ‘effects of the natural subsidence of the land and human-caused in sea level’ and that ‘we need to prepare’ for this.
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Knowing more about sea-level
To know more about sea-level, a NASA article provides an interesting explanation about it and the factors causing sea-level rise particularly from sinking of land or subsistence due to soil compaction, groundwater and hydrocarbon extraction which caused by human activities, and tectonic forces including the post-glacial rebound as part of the natural causes.
The article discusses postglacial rebound, land subsidence, sea-level rise influenced by the changes in gravitation at the local and regional levels, and terms like self-attraction and loading related to the formation and melting of glaciers.
Read NASA’s article by clicking on the button below: